Importantly, the area of neuropharmacology research has been growing steadily due to the global trend in population aging and associated with this continuously increasing number of patients with neuropsychiatric disorders worldwide. It is hoped that identification of new pharmaceutically useful molecules or new clinical applications will continue in the future, in order to improve clinical outcomes and to further strengthen the field of neuropharmacology, a research area cross-linking basic and clinical sciences.
Neuroscience or neurobiology is a multidisciplinary scientific study of the nervous system, and especially its major organ, the brain. It was reported that neuropsychiatric disorders, together with brain connectivity and emotion, belong to the most cited works in neuroscience Yeung et al. Alzheimer's disease AD , Parkinson's disease PD , and related dementias are the most prevalent, aging-related neurodegenerative disorders of the central nervous system CNS , affecting more than 17 Reitz and Mayeux, and 21 million Poewe et al.
As a result of the global trend in population aging, the number of patients with AD, PD, and related dementias is projected to double over the next 20 years Tzvetkov and Atanasov, These neuropsychiatric disorders represent a significant socioeconomic burden on society, and therefore, they have been heavily investigated and cited in the last few decades Yeung et al.
Historically, clinical pharmacologists have worked with neuroscientists to develop human models in order to evaluate the translational value of selected drugs or drug receptors biological targets into clinical therapy Trist et al. For example, the pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetic, and metabolism of cannabinoids have been studied over three decades Howlett et al.
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It is also worth mentioning that in the last decade the high publication rate of scientific literature on the field of neuropsychiatry correlates with the increased burden of neuropsychiatric disorders on society Agarwal and Searls, Unfortunately, it seems that in recent years many leading pharmaceutical companies have reduced their investment in early drug discovery related to neuropsychiatric disorders Trist et al.
However, we strongly believe that it is important to further research on new neuropharmacology therapies for these neuropsychiatric disorders since a previous study has reported a startling 0. Chemical structures of selected pharmaceuticals and naturally occurring molecules, which were identified as recurring themes for neuropharmacology studies. To evaluate the impact of the cross-road of pharmacology and neuroscience and identify prevailing research topics in this area, a bibliometric analysis of the neuropharmacology field may allow for a deeper understanding of the current research hot topics and their citation performance in the scientific community.
To the best of our knowledge, numerous bibliometric literature analyses have so far only touched upon a few aspects of the area of neuropharmacology, such as the distribution of author nationality and research topics in a selected neuropharmacology journal Krishna Reddy et al. Therefore, the aim of this study is to identify and analyze the published neuropharmacology articles in the existing literature sources worldwide. The particular main goals of this work are:. To reveal and quantitatively compare the relevant key research topics in neuropharmacology as indicated by their citations,.
To identify the institutions and countries having major contributions to this research area, and. This strategy searched for manuscripts that contain the pre-defined combinations of these terms in their title, abstract, or keywords. No restrictions were placed on the publication year, manuscript type e. The manuscripts resulting from the literature search were evaluated and recorded for: 1 publication year; 2 journal title; 3 total citation count; 4 authorship; 5 WoS category; and 6 manuscript type. VOSviewer extracts and analyzes the words in the titles and abstracts of manuscripts, relates them to citation counts, and finally, visualizes the results as a bubble map Van Eck and Waltman, Each bubble represents a word or a phrase.
Provided as a Supplementary Data Sheet , are all the 1, terms, remaining after the exclusion of the 5, common words, and their citations per manuscript. The bubble size indicates the frequency of occurrence of the words multiple appearances in a single manuscript count as one.
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- Mathematical Problems in Theoretical Physics (Proc. Lausanne);
- Combination Therapies 2: Biological Response Modifiers in the Treatment of Cancer and Infectious Diseases.
The bubble color indicates the averaged citation count received by manuscripts containing the word in their titles or abstracts. Two bubbles are in closer proximity if the two words had more frequent co-occurrence. The term map visualizes terms that appeared in at least of the included manuscripts. Pearson's correlation test was performed in SPSS To better account for the potential confound of publication date on the citation count, we have also analyzed the normalized citation NC counts, which are expressed with values starting from 0 with no upper limit.
The literature search resulted in 43, manuscripts. The small number of publications before the s is likely due to absent indexing of older manuscripts prior to s by the online literature database. Publication trend of neuropharmacology manuscripts highlighting the continuous growth that has occurred since the s.
These institutions had NC data has shown that manuscripts contributed by the top 10 most prolific institutions generally have had higher than average citations. The large volume of contributions from the USA, Germany, England, and China is consistent with previous analyses pointing their contributions to neuroimaging Yeung et al. One potential confound for this finding was that, for example, the peer-reviewed journal PLOS One was just recently founded in , and therefore papers published in it might have had less time to accumulate more citations.
In this line, when NC was considered, manuscripts published in PLOS One were only slightly less cited than the average manuscripts published from the same year of publication 0. There were 2, terms that appeared in at least of the included manuscripts.
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Differential scientific attention has been given to several pathological conditions. For instance, schizophrenia 2, manuscripts; However, the current results confirm that other neuropsychiatric disorders e. Meanwhile, manuscripts dealing with activation or inhibition pathways of receptors in neurons had both higher publication count and citations per manuscript than those dealing with adverse effect or adverse event of neuropharmacological drugs.
Term map using words from titles and abstracts of the 43, neuropharmacology articles. Words from titles and abstracts were parsed, analyzed and visualized by VOSviewer. There were 1, terms that appeared in or more articles and hence are included in the term map. Each bubble represents a term or phrase. The bubble size indicates its frequency of occurrence. The bubble color indicates the averaged citation counts received by articles containing the term or phrase. If two terms co-occurred more frequently, the two bubbles would be in closer proximity.
Cannabis and cannabinoids have long been known to exert multiple effects on the CNS, cardiorespiratory system, eye, immune system, and reproductive system Pertwee, ; Kumar et al. Perhaps the most important effect associated with cannabis and cannabinoids is their use as analgesics Miller and Miller, Cannabis pharmacology has firstly attracted the attention in the s. Nowadays, researchers have been also exploring its use in the treatment of psychiatric disorders and cancer Russo and Marcu, PHCOL Drug Discovery and Emerging Therapeutics 2 Consideration of the general principles and current approaches involved in modern drug discovery and development, with an emphasis on basic concepts in drug action, delivery, and metabolism.
When Neuroscience Meets Pharmacology: A Neuropharmacology Literature Analysis
Discussion of novel drug discovery techniques and emerging non-standard therapeutics. Prerequisite: organic chemistry, biochemistry, and introductory anatomy and physiology. Instructors: Zheng Offered: W. Nathanson Consideration of the pharmacology of the cardiovascular and autonomic nervous systems. Emphasizes the mechanisms of neurotransmitter, hormone, drug action at autonomic synapses, and the molecular basis for physiology and pathophysiology of the cardiovascular system.
Lectures, group discussion, and analysis of recent research. Lecture, group discussion, and analysis of recent research. Offered: Sp. Basic principles of chemotherapy of endocrine and other cancers, as well as viral and microbial diseases. Instructors: McKnight Offered: Sp.
Presentations include relevant background material as well as detailed experimental results taken from current research articles. At the end of each quarter students make formal presentations of their work. For first-year graduate students in pharmacology.
Includes reaction mechanisms, ultrastructural considerations,induction mechanisms, methodology, kinetics of inhibition and activation, steroid and amine metabolism. PHCOL Ion Channel Pharmacology 2 Current topics in ion channel structure, function, genetics, and pharmacology, including consideration of role in electrical signaling in cell membranes and information transfer and processing in nervous system, inherited diseases of ion channels, and sites and mechanisms of action of drugs and toxins. Instructors: Catterall, Tempel Offered: A, odd years. PHCOL Neuronal Signaling Pathways 2 Advanced consideration of the molecular events between drug or hormone binding to receptors and the resulting responses.
Emphasizes roles played by signal transduction pathways in regulation of synaptic plasticity, memory formation, neuronal apoptosis, and developmental neurobiology. PHCOL Genetic Analysis of Signaling Systems 3 Rich Gardner, Stanley McKnight Introduction to classic model organisms including plants, yeast, slime mold, flies, worms, fish, mice, and humans and a discussion of their use in current signal transduction research.
A major focus will also be on developing a research grant proposal culminating in a mock study section in which student proposals are evaluated by their peers. Prerequisite: permission of instructor; recommended: molecular and cellular biology; and genetics. Offered: Sp, odd years. PHCOL Molecular Basis of Addictive Drug Action 2 Advanced consideration and discussion of current literature addressing the basis of opiate, psychostimulant, and cannabinoid effects on signal transduction events, electrical activity of neurons, and drip-motivated behaviors in animal models of human drug abuse.
English Deutsch. Molecular Physiology and Cell Biology.