This book investigates the cultures of resilience and the institutions of reconstruction in Britain, Australia, and the United States. Immersed in efforts to heal the violence and triumph over adversity, reconstruction motivated politicians, professionals, and individuals to transform themselves and their societies.
Bodies were not to remain locked away in tortured memories. Instead, they became the subjects of outspoken debate, the objects of rehabilitation, and commodities of desire in global industries. Governments, physicians, beauty and body therapists, monument designers, and visual artists looked to classicism and modernism as the tools for rebuilding civilization and its citizens.
What better riposte for loss of life, limb, and mind than a body reconstructed? Keywords: First World War , the body , beauty , pain , disability , rehabilitation , trauma , memory , modernity , sexuality. Forgot password? Don't have an account? All Rights Reserved.
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OSO version 0. University Press Scholarship Online. Sign in. Not registered? Sign up. Publications Pages Publications Pages. Search my Subject Specializations: Select Transfer is more difficult when a concept is taught in a limited set of contexts or through a limited set of activities.
When concepts are taught only in one context, students are not exposed to the varied practices associated with those concepts. It is only by encountering the same concept at work in multiple contexts that students can develop a deep understanding of the concept and how it can be used, as well as the ability to transfer what has been learned in one context to others Anderson, Greeno, Reder, and Simon, If the goal of education is to allow learners to apply what they learn in real situations, learning must involve applications and take place in the context of authentic activities Brown et al.
Brown and colleagues , p. Brown and colleagues offer a somewhat different definition: given that the goal of education is to prepare students to be lifelong learners, activities are authentic if they foster the kinds of thinking that are important for learning in out-of-school settings, whether or not those activities mirror what practitioners do.
Regardless of which definition is adopted, the importance of situating learning in authentic activities is clear. Collins notes the following four specific benefits: 1 students learn about the conditions for applying knowledge, 2 they are more likely to engage in invention and problem solving when learning in novel and diverse situations and settings, 3 they are able to see the implications of their knowledge, and 4 they are supported in structuring knowledge in ways that are appropriate for later use.
Teachers can engage learners in important practices that can be used in different situations by drawing upon real-world exercises, or exercises that foster problem-solving skills and strategies that are used in real-world situations. Such an approach provides language, activities, and procedures that can acculturate students into the community of scholars and lifelong learners. Problem-based and case-based learning are two instructional approaches that create opportunities for students to engage in practices similar to those of experts.
Technology also can be used to bring real-world contexts into the classroom. The committee emphasizes that with all of these approaches, care must be taken to provide multiple opportunities for students to engage in activities in which the same concept is at work; otherwise learning could become overly contexualized. Learning is enhanced through socially supported interactions. Learning can be enhanced when students have the opportunity to interact and collaborate with others on instructional tasks. In learning environments that encourage collaboration among peers, such as those in which most practicing scientists and mathematicians work, individuals build com-.
The social nature of learning has important implications for the consequences of the ways in which students are grouped for instruction. For example, students who are placed in low-track classes often have less time to collaborate and interact around instructional tasks.
SAGE Books - Reconstructing the Psychological Subject: Bodies, Practices and Technologies
Research indicates that teachers in low-track science and mathematics classes spend more time than teachers in higher-track classes on routines, and more frequently provide seatwork and worksheet activities that are designed to be completed independently Oakes, Additionally, teachers in higher-track classes often orchestrate more frequent and varied opportunities for students to participate in small-group problem-solving activities than are provided by teachers in lower-track classes, who tend to focus on behavior management and on maintaining control during learning activities.
Some might contend that teachers in both types of classes are responding to the needs of their students. However, teachers must strike a balance between providing the structure that is often appropriate for low-ability students and the active engagement that allows these students to learn at deeper levels. Newmann and Wehlage identify teaching strategies that promote intellectual quality and authenticity. The authors stress that such subject matter conversations go far beyond reporting facts, procedures, or definitions; they focus on making distinctions, applying ideas, forming generalizations, and raising questions.
According to the results of research by Gamoran and Nystrand , the opportunities for such substantive engagement are far fewer in low-track than in higher-track classes. The seven principles of learning set forth in this chapter are not ends in themselves. Their usefulness lies in the guidance they provide for the design of curriculum, instruction, assessment, and professional development for. The next chapter articulates design principles for advanced study that draw on these principles of learning.
Differences among learners have implications for how curriculum and instruction should be structured. Different strategies would most likely be used to meet the needs of other students, although there might be some overlap. Characteristic: High-ability learners display an exceptionally rich knowledge base in their specific talent domain. Within that domain, they tend to achieve formal operational thought earlier than other students and to display advanced problem-solving strategies. High-ability learners are also able to work with abstract and complex ideas in their talent domain at an earlier age.
Implication: High-ability learners are ready to access the high school mathematics and science curriculum earlier than other students. Thus the high school mathematics and science sequence should be offered to them beginning in middle school. Characteristic: High-ability students pick up informally much of the content knowledge taught in school, and as a result, that knowledge tends to be idiosyncratic and not necessarily organized around the central concepts of the discipline. Implication: Assessment of what the learner has already mastered through diagnostic testing is critical.
Instruction needs to build on what is already known and on previous experiences, filling in the gaps and correct-. The information in this section is drawn from research on gifted and talented learners see, for example, Association of the Gifted and Talented, ; Berger, ; Boyce et al. It also must help the student organize his or her knowledge around the central ideas of the discipline. A full course in a content area often is not needed; either it could be skipped, with gaps being filled in as needed, or the curriculum compacted.
Characteristic: High-ability learners learn at a more rapid rate than other students and can engage in simultaneous rather than only linear processing of ideas in their talent domain. Implication: The pace at which the curriculum is offered must be adjusted for these learners. The curriculum also must be at a more complex level, making interdisciplinary connections whenever possible. That is, the curriculum should allow for faster pacing of well-organized, compressed, and appropriate learning experiences that are, in the end, enriching and accelerative.
Characteristic: Many high-ability students will have mastered the content of high school mathematics and science courses before formally taking the courses, either on their own, through special programs, or through Web-based courses. Implication: Opportunities for testing out of prerequisites should be provided. Many high-ability students could be placed directly in an AP science course, skipping the typical high school—level prerequisite, or begin the IB program earlier than is typical. Characteristic: High-ability students often can solve problems by alternative means and not know the underlying concept being tapped by a test item e.
ISBN 13: 9780803976146
Implication: Assessments should not be solely in multiple-choice format; students must be able to show their work in arriving at a solution. Characteristic: The motivation of high-ability students to achieve often becomes diminished because of boredom in school, resulting in underachievement. Growth in. Characteristic: The capacity for learning of high-ability students is underestimated and thus becomes underdeveloped, especially if learning criteria lack sufficient challenge, and curriculum is not adequately knowledge rich and rigorous.
Implication: Curriculum must be targeted at developing especially deep and well-organized knowledge structures that with time will begin to approximate those of experts. Doing so will foster cognitive development, higher-level thinking skills, and creativity.
The depth of the curriculum should allow gifted learners to continue exploring an area of special interest to the expert level. Curricula for these students should enable them to explore constantly changing knowledge and information and develop the attitude that knowledge is worth pursuing in a global society. Characteristic: High-ability children are advanced in their critical and creative thinking skills. They tend to spend much more time up front i.
Implication: The basic thinking skills to be developed in high-ability students are critical thinking, creative thinking, problem finding and solving, research, and decision making. Those skills should be mastered within each content domain. Characteristic: High-ability students prefer unstructured problems in which the task is less well defined. They also like to structure their own learning experiences. They do not require careful scaffolding of material or step-by-step learning experiences to master new material or concepts; in fact, they become frustrated with such approaches.
Implication: Opportunities to identify and solve problems should be provided. Interdisciplinarity, greater in-depth exploration of areas of interest, and autonomous learning should be encouraged. Meaningful project work in content areas, in which real-world products are generated, is appropriate as it allows students the opportunity to create on their own and to apply and expand ideas learned in class. To facilitate such work, curricula should encourage exposure to, selection of, and use of specialized and appropriate resources. Characteristic: High-ability students have the capacity to make connections easily among disparate bodies of knowledge and to deal effectively with abstractions and complexity of thought.
Implication: Curricula ought to emphasize providing students with a deep understanding of the important concepts of a discipline and how they. Curricula should allow for the development and application of productive thinking skills to instill in students the capacity to reconceptualize existing knowledge and generate new knowledge. Characteristic: Eminent persons tend to have been profoundly influenced by a single individual, such as an educator.
Reconstructing the Psychological Subject: Bodies, Practices and Technologies
Those who are precocious in creative production tend to exhibit outstanding achievement in adult life. Implication: Mentorships, internships, or long-term research opportunities should be provided for advanced students. Doing so took them much time and sustained effort, with the talent development process having begun well before secondary school. Characteristic: High-ability students develop greater expectations, feel better about themselves, and engage in higher-level processing or discourse when working with other students of similar ability. Implication: High-ability students need the challenge and stimulation of being together for at least part of every school day, with expectations set high enough to challenge their potential ability to meet them.